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Iraqi Refugees in Syria

Fact-Finding Mission

Dr. Violette Daguerre & Mr. Nasser Al-Ghazali

Edited by: Violette Daguerre


Second half of August 2007



Iraqi Refugees in Syria


1- Fact-Fining Mission

During the second half of August, a mission including prof. Violet Dagher and Mr. Nasser Ghazali headed to the Arab Republic of Syria to investigate the real situation of the Iraqi refugees in Syria that receives the biggest number of Iraqis during an era in which all the countries became accustomed to watching their severe sufferings. Refuge and replacement seem to be within systemized plans, not only a result of the killings and violations in Iraq; the refugees' number is immensely growing. Consequently, our mission aimed at making the world- especially the international and Arab civil society, including the charitable and humanitarian societies- feel the real status of the Iraqi refugees in Syria and ask the charitable people to help them, because the whole world- Arabs and non-Arabs, governments and people, media, human rights activists, and charitable societies are all blamed for neglecting the Iraqi people and their issue; all of us should feel responsible for the miserable status suffered by Iraq. We should not be careless about the crimes and atrocities practiced in Iraq. What the refugees receive is very little compared to what should be offered by Arab and international NGOs. Meanwhile, the Arab and non-Arab rich states recklessly and blindly deal with the issue in an inhumane manner; the Iraqi government is accused of ignoring its people's sufferings and misery without helping the people of the second oil reserve in the world, while neglecting the treasury to lose through theft, contraband, speculations, black market, and money transferal for buying weapons and protecting the business of multi-national companies.


Likewise, the Iraqi religious foundations seem to do nothing for their fellow citizens; the rich Iraqis are the same; they prefer spending money shamelessly on the luxurious life, even though they have not gain such riches through legal honorable ways, while they could perform charitable works in order to aid their needy natives or invest their money in establishing universities, hospitals, or service projects. On the other hand, the Arab media is whether unable, conniving, or restraining. Actually, if it were objective and powerful it would turn the world upside down. Indeed the media paved the way for the partition of Iraq and people were forced out from the route of striving policies by the tyrannical dominance of their rulers through making them crave after the morsel of bread and necessities of life.


Certainly, there are many sides concerning themselves about the Iraqi issue and aiding its people, but they moved lately because they have not known how to give the aids to the various needy classes of refugees and in a direct way ensuring that they already avail themselves of such aids. This is the last hope for such mutual effort to contribute in shedding more light on the Iraqi refugees issue in Syria and leads to the serious honest work and futuristic projects. Here, we should express our great gratitude to everyone involved in this report whether by devoting his time for an interview, sending letters, or through our dependence on his writings regarding such issue. In addition, we apologize for not mentioning the names to avoid mistakenly omitting someone or revealing something may cause problems for them casting the responsibility completely on them regarding information and numbers they have provided, because of the lack of accurate statistics and information.


2- The American occupation against Iraq:


Before dedicating ourselves heartedly to the situations of Iraqi refugees in Syria, we should make a brief gesture about their situations in their country, which forced them out and caused their eviction. In the beginning, we call attestations to a rich book with authenticated information that has been issued recently by studies center of the Arab union and the Arab committee for human rights. The book was written by James Boll and Celine Nahory titled "War and Occupation of Iraq".


The occupation forces have invaded Iraq in March 2003 after an unprecedented economic siege imposed by the United States on the country for 13 years. The occupation has invaded this country under the pretext that the Iraqi regime produced the international forbidden weapons, rejected to carry out the decisions of the United Nations, and circulated that it will spread democracy though out the Middle East. It did not take long time to become proven that all such goals are false, especially after the reports of inspection committees, headed by Hans Blix, or after the collapse of Iraq and the report of David K who issued some evidences regarding the lack of massive destruction weapons in Iraq. On the other hand, Bush admitted, in 2004 summer, that even though there are no massive destruction weapons in Iraq, he would invade it.


The first shock for the public opinion, nationally and internationally, during the invasion of the Allied forces to Baghdad- the Iraqi capital- was the abuse of Baghdad museum and then the contents of the national bibliotheca which were lost whether through theft by professional specialists or through burning and devastation. A huge files, manuscripts, maps, and rare pictures were lost in order to wipe the deep-rooted history of Iraq out. However, the sincere Iraqis refused such destiny for their heritage and worked diligently in order to restore such lost heritage.


This war costs the United States nearly $8.4 billions monthly, according to what was issued in Guardian newspaper in the summer of 2006. The article was quoted from the report of Linda Blims (the expert of budgets in Harvard University) and Joseph Stiglitz (professor in Colombia University and the winner of Nobel Prize in 2001). The number of American soldiers in Iraq has reached 162,000, but because of the retreat of supporting war against Iraq after four years, the death of 3800 soldiers and the injury of 27,000, besides the unknown number of the new mercenaries in the private security companies, the American army faces gross difficulties in mobilizing new batches of soldiers. Therefore, the land forces will have a bonus during the following year that reaches $200 million in order to magnetize new elements from the mobilized persons. Actually, the American youth turns away from mobilization because of what is happening in Iraq, on the other hand, the American army tries to keep its elite soldiers from the tempting offers introduced by the private sector or from discouragement because of the resistance to war in Iraq.

Besides such numbers, there is a great deal of hired mercenaries that their number may exceed 100000 soldiers. Whereas the Ministry of Defense employs nearly 7300 security contractors, the Foreign Ministry deals with the notorious Black Water Company which has, as known to everybody, shooting rates higher than the other security companies in Iraq. One of the scandalous files of the American occupation in Iraq was recently revealed to world public opinion in America itself; it became clear and left no room for doubt about the nature of the American project in the area. After targeting the dissolving of military and nation security constitutions, the occupation replaced them by the occupation forces and mercenaries companies that work hard to control the new constitutions. As a result for their persistence in committing gross atrocities, murders, and plundering in Iraq, the role of such companies was disclosed and the Iraqi government was asked to end the authorization of their work in Iraq because they are under the authority of Iraqi law. Consequently, it is possible to stop their work and to sue the involved persons. On the other hand, some Iraqis view these companies as the protector of the government's headquarters, the American embassy, the senior foreign diplomatic characters, and besides it is a part of the multinational forces, so they are exempted from any judicial trial by the virtue of the decision 17 issued by Brimar in June 2003. Eventually, they returned to work by the instructions of the American administration which can in no way manage without such companies that used as a security and military arm for occupation.


Such forces mutually carried out the explosions, destructions, and random or deliberate murders, so more than 800,000 Iraqis were killed since the collapse of Baghdad until the current time. Also, they emigrated not less than four millions Iraqis, kindled the sectarian conflicts, and worked deliberately to partition Iraq politically, economically, socially, and also from security aspect. The American administration also worked hard to impose partition and federations administratively and geographically and to pass the laws which weaken the national unity, kindle sectarianism, and ethnic conflicts through militias and Special Forces that work according to the political orders.

Some Iraqis said that the existing forces in Iraq has sought the help of Israeli expertise in siege to Palestine cities and towns through the siege of earth barriers, barbed wires, trenches, and the security dominance through the collective punishments. Proving that, they mentioned that there are military Israeli experts wearing the American uniform and work among the American battalions in the west regions of Iraq. They have started in partition Iraq into cantons and sectarian territories, built a concrete barrier around Al A`zamiyah city, separated the regions in the west Karkh by high concrete barriers, and built barriers around Hifa street, Al A`llawi, Al Kinidi street, and Al Khadra' and Gardiyah districts provided that the security inspection will be carried out through the exclusive ID cards of the areas.

In the same time, there are many testimonies regarding widening the official Iranian influence in the south regions, others talked about the distribution of huge money for some tribes and security authorities in order to call for establishing federations and forming their executive authorities, for example, the issued statement by a group of tribes' leaders regarding the construction of west region and its political and security authorities. As for Kurdistan region, we can disregard the military movements of Kurd Bismarck forces in Karkouk to ensure the security of electricity and gas lines and to fully dominate the executive borders of Karkouk. This happens in coincidence with the eviction of various racial and sectarian families along with strongly worded threats regarding the application of article 140 in the occupation constitution with regard to Karkouk and finding a compromise regarding the disputed regions in Diali, Al Mousil, and Wasit governorate. The testimonies of emigrants from Karkouk are wholly agreed that the adopted policy states a readied national concept for the town and its surrounding and the Kurd forces try hard to impose it upon all. The report of United Nations assistance mission for Iraq has criticized the national policy of the government expressing their doubts about the continuous hassles against women which exaggerates to reach killing, asking the concerned authorities to rapidly resolve the problems of emigrant families to Kurdistan, especially the Christians, and emphasizing the necessity to allot additional resources in order to satisfy their needs.


International Committee of the Red Cross made a sign, in its report, about the hidden tragedy of thousands of families of lost people whose destinies are still could not be determined after many years of conflicts and lack of calling to account. Some Iraq official sources estimated them nearly as 1,375,000 thousand, i.e., including the lost during Iraqi-Iranian war (1980 – 1988), during the Gulf war in 1991, and during the American invasion in 2003 and the violent accts since that time until this moment. The International Committee has also announced that, according to Iraqi sources, nearly 20,000 corpses were transferred to Forensic Medicine Institute of Baghdad between the outset 2006 and middle of 2007; indeed half of such corpses was not known or recognized.



The Nation magazine, which made some interviews with American soldiers returning from Iraq, mentioned the familiar barbarous acts committed with no punishments for them. Many of them view that it is enough to regard the Iraqi as non-human beings like them if he could not speak English or for his black color. Consequently, he deserves anything they commit against him. Moreover, such soldiers made some ethnic mockeries of the culture, identity, and Iraqi customs, even after the scandal of Abu Gharib, they continued to abuse the arrested people, some of them are thousands of former Iraqi military officials, moreover, the Iraqi men are detained in the age of military service without any evidence and they are abused during investigation, where their hands are tied by plastic ties and their heads are covered by sacks full of sand.


Since the beginning of this summer, the news started to circulate regarding many investigations about fraud and misuse of 1800 contracts valued at billions dollars. Such contracts were contracted in order to provide services in Iraq during the years of occupation, for example, the contracts with KBR Company which is a division of great Halliburton Company which received billions of dollars since 2001 in order to provide foods and shelter for the American army in Iraq and Afghanistan; certainly it has benefited from its relationship with Dick Chini, the vice American president



Reflections and outcomes


Consequently, some individuals from the coalition forces dared to disclose the briberies, thefts, and weapon trade even without providing the bills (including 160 thousand pieces of weapons, which were vanished between 2004 and 2005 and were found with the forces of Kurdistan Democratic Party. Some of such individuals have been detained arbitrarily and tortured by the American army in Iraq. Apparently, everything motivates them to behave barbarically, not to behave honorably and objectively in order to reveal the facts. A study by Associated Press revealed that most of the individuals who unveiled the facts during the last three decades were threatened and had their families and professional life punished and severely affected.


Some rumors in the United States state that there are more than one hundred thousand persons who are denied from travel, suffer from hassles in the airports, and might be imprisoned. The famous activists and writer, Nawmi Wolf, in her new book "The End of America", said that in all probability that such list is related to those who resist Bush and his policy. Indeed this is the classic way of the totalitarian regimes. The writer has started in survey about such list in 2002 and broadened her work in 2003 after Bush orders to the CIA to watch the "persons who have terrorist intentions or links".


Indeed, she herself has not been saved from the offensive treatment at airports for she is enlisted- but not in that of the terrorists- in the list of others, namely the teachers, journalists, activists, and politicians who criticized the White House polices. Like what was happened to Senator Edward Kinidi who was successively frisked for five times at American airports. Moreover, this is the fate of others who were assaulted and harmed in order to renounce their thoughts. Those who are against war in Iraq are the main target of Bush-Chini administration, especially if they are of feminist movements, NGOs, or politicians to the extent that the treatments directed to them were nothing but aggression and vulgarism in the so-called country of freedom and democracy. In 2004, CBS TV channel obtained a list including 75 thousand persons who should be frisked strictly by the intelligence agents and should be denied from travel if necessary.


 The new American policy has searched for the support of moderate Arab countries after it was furious of their interference in the regional issues. In the same time, it keeps on encouraging the local Arab-Arab struggles in the countries neighboring Iraq such as Palestine, Lebanon, and others; besides, establishing the pivots' policy in the Middles East aiming at promoting the idea of normalization with Israel and kindling enmity against Iran. Also, Washington has instructed the United Nations to widen its political role only in the executive aspects not in the constitutional competence in order to provide the international political cover for the American role, strengthen the elements of partition, prepare the atmospheres for changing the mission of its forces and redeploying them after having the legality from the parliament in order to plunder the wealth and treasures of Iraq. However, as for the oil law, there is an American persistence to ratify it and relate this to the national reconciliation under the pretext that this will distribute the oil wealth between the regions and will save them from conflict regarding the financial resources. Actually, this will deprive the regions that refuse the ethnic and racial partitions and will pave the way for the governments of regions to dispose the wealth of Iraqi people for the benefit of clannish, separatist, and racial leaderships.


The American official statements continued in casting the responsibility of deterioration on Iran and Syria, focusing on sectarian violence, and circulating that the Shiites and Sunnites in no way could live together under the sky of old Iraq due to the fact that they voted in the last election for the benefits of their sects and they actually live peacefully in the places inhabited by the same members of their sects; this in accordance with their eviction escaping violence.


In spite of the debatable benefits of his polices, the American president has suddenly visited Iraq with the chief of the general staff. This happened after his administration's refusal of the recommendations of Beaker-Hamilton committee which called for decreasing the numbers of American forces in Iraq and changing their role into training and qualifying the Iraqi forces, making negotiations with Iran and the regional neighboring countries of Iraq, and holding international conferences to resolve the crises of Iraq and the whole area. Such visit to Al Anbar governorate followed the disbandment of his international alliances and the decision of Britain's withdrawal of its forces from Al-Basra and keeping their role with the bounds of training the Iraqi forces as a political means of pressure on the Congress in order to continue in financing the American forces in Iraq and to stop pressures on the American administration to make a schedule for the withdrawal from Iraq and the administration will indeed command few thousands of forces to return home before the end of this year.


The democratic senator, Joseph Biden, viewed that it is imperative for the ones who make Bush's policy to make a plan for the withdrawal of American farces from Iraq, group after group, before the Christmas, consequently 100 thousands soldiers would remain secured in Iraq in their bases by the presidential election. On the other hand, Washington Post stated that the White House has decided to proceed with the strategy that started in January till the next spring, will never surrender to the pressures of democratic, and will add $50 billions to the $460 billions which was asked by the administration in the defense budget of 2008 and to the $147 billion for financing the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan


The comptrollers' office, investigation institution ancillary to the Congress, has revealed a report regarding the achieved goals in Iraq since the invasion; afterwards Washington Post leaked part of such report to the public stating that three positive goals out of eighteen ones, determined by Washington, have been achieved in Iraq. Actually this report is in complete contrast with another more positive one which was issued by the White House last month in which it stated that eight goals have been achieved in Iraq. In the same manner, there was the report of Petrious and Krocker on which the White House depended, but the report added nothing. The first recommended to decrease the number of American forces in Iraq to 30 thousand soldiers till next year's summer; this is due to the successes, as he described, achieved by his country and the improvement of the security situation in Iraq. The second, namely the ambassador Krocker said nothing but accusing Syria and Iran of the lack of help to prevent the militias' entrance into Iraq.


After a field visit in Iraq, a researcher in the center of strategic international polices viewed that the United States will in no way leave Iraq before ten years at least, adding that the probability of the success is fifty percentage whatever it does and it will be encountered by continuous dangers, military difficulties, and strategic, political, and moral challenges regardless its choices. Ricardo Sanchez, the leader of coalition force in Iraq in 2003 who retired after Abu GHRAIB scandal, has severely criticized both the political and military American leadership in Iraq believing that their polices led the United States to live in "endless nightmare" and indeed there is "a desperate attempt from an administration that do not accept the political and economic facts of this war".


The American president went to the ends of earth in order to paralyze the resistance against occupation and to drag the feet of Iraqi sides to play the American game aiming at transferring the conflicts among the Iraqi sides. Indeed, he is still persistent that war in Iraq is the front-line of war against terrorism and Al Qaeda troops. Moreover, he considered that the Iranian danger is in no way less than the terrorism of Al Qaeda on America, the American forces, and the area and the world. Despite the collapse of important characters in his administration and the beginning of its life countdown, it has already stated since last November in the last American elections, the political method of his administration regarding certain issues has not yet changed. On the other hand, the American Intelligence has issued a report about the violence level in Iraq that is still high and the Iraqi politicians who are unable to rule effectively which justifies the existence of America in this country for along time or resolving the Iranian problem before withdrawal, if the withdrawal might happen.


Three democratic candidates for next year's presidential election in the United States refused to obligate themselves with the withdrawal of the American forces from Iraq by the end of the following presidential period in 2013. Actually when they speak about withdrawal, they do so only for the sake of internal election and to criticize the policy of republicans and the current administration.


Not long ago, the American Senate adopted unbinding decision, which was inspired by the Deaton agreement regarding Bosnia that calls for establishing federal units on ethnic and sectarian basis in Iraq; such country, which was consisting of three administrative entities that consequently was canceled by Sykes-Picot agreement in order to establish the central country. The decision urges the reconciliation between the main elements of Iraq, allowing the establishment of federal areas along with the united Iraq, and the equal distribution of oil wealth among Iraqis to help fix the federal system. This decision might be binding to the American administration because it is a preparation for the form of policy that the United States endeavors to apply in Iraq in the near future. On the other hand, the former leader of American central stated that leadership, Anthony Zinni, in his study regarding the future of Iraq, stated that despite the fact that Iraq is "a made country with modeled in regions" in the outset of the twentieth century, the partitioned country into Sunnites, Shiites, and Kurds will avail nothing.


The Iraqi president, Jalal Talibani, who expected that the United States would withdraw 100 thousand American soldiers in Iraq by the end of 2008 and in more rapid manner than the publicly expressed by the military leaders, has suggested the staying of three American military bases in the north, south, and middle of Iraq. Justifying that he added: "for training the Iraqi forces, stability of Iraq, and to forbid the neighboring countries from interference in our own affairs".


Recently, hundreds of Iraqis who cooperated with the occupation forces against their fellow citizens were forced out. Besides, there are many rumors about the dedication of some politicians, who returned to Iraq with the occupation forces in 2003, to buy houses in London and prepare to great projects after leaving Iraq. A senior American official has stated that her country will accept the requests of migration made by Iraqis who helped the American forces in Iraq. This resulted of the criticism of Congress that the assimilated number of them into the American society is so little since the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The total number of them is seven thousands including Iraqi translators whose life is threatened by the resistance, which considered them as disloyal to their country because they worked with the American forces. On the other hand, Denmark has secretly transferred 200 Iraqis on 22 July 2007 with their families because they cooperated with its forces. Consequently, 500 Danish solider were withdrawn from Iraq.


Prof, Khir Ad-Deen Hasib believes that the current political process in Iraq has come to grieve; most of ministers cannot go to their offices, half of them have retired, and the government is unable to undertake its basic responsibilities regarding providing safety. This happens despite the wide military operations executed by the American forces and the deployment of additional 30 thousand soldiers since last February. The same idea is applicable on the necessary services, for example, electricity in Baghdad is not provided for more than two hours along the day and sometimes it might be off for several days, water is mostly impure which resulted in the spreading of cholera, and with regard to the committee entitled to amend the constitution, they have not fulfilled their mission yet, the parliamentary has not discussed the constitutional amendments though the appointed time has elapsed, the referendum is still paralyzed, besides all the coalition, which supports the government, has started to disband after the withdrawal of "Al Fadhila" party and "the Sadre Current" which were included in "Ad-Da`awa" party by the Islamic highest council, moreover, America is unable to form a government from such mixture.


Nevertheless, as for the American forces which are responsible for providing security, the killed soldiers among them till 17/9/2007 are (3773), injured soldiers are nearly (28000) and half of them are unable to return to work because of the deformations, burns, amputation, madness, and other reasons. Such forces are unable to train enough Iraqi forces in order that the latter takes their place and because they can in no way work alone, their number has decreased besides the lack of armament


Many sides bet that the national resistance will frustrate of the American project despite the natural differences between the factions of resistance caused by political, intellectual, tribal, party factors, and the relationships with supporting sides, which are different in goals of support and its forms. Also due to the recent kinds of cooperation between the occupation forces and some factions, with what the so-called the leaders of kindred, and with the councils of deliverance for the preparations to decrease the numbers of these forces in the near future. Others believe that Americans has realized their fault when they bet that the Shiite forces will avail them to achieve their goals and so that they rejected the Sunnites, so they wanted to reconsider the law of implanting the Bath party, the formation of army, and the security systems to compensate the victims in Al Anbar district, to free some detainees, and attract some of the Sunnah to side them against the Iranian.


Such matter is so dangerous for all that the American forces endeavor diligently to partition the country into two rival competing sides and they will avail from them both on the expenses of unity and independence of Iraq. However, due to the complete awareness of factions about the real facts and their precise determination, six main Iraqi factions have agreed unanimously upon establishing the political council of Iraqi resistance and calling to emancipate Iraq from the foreign influence in order to achieve the perfect independence. The council includes Reform and Jihad front, which covers four factions: the Islamic Army, the Army of mujahedin, and the Army of Conquerors, the legal organization of ansarus-Sunnah (Sunnah Advocates), besides Iraq Hamas Movement, and the Islamic Front for the Iraqi resistance.


On the other hand, under the preparations for the near future, Prof. Boll Robert, an economist in Regan administration, warned his fellow citizens through written article on the internet against new September11, due to the plans of Bush and Chini in order to broaden the powers of the president and to wage war against Iran to get rid for the problem of the American defeat in Iraq. Regarding this issue, William Greag wrote that the Republicans hope for another terrorist attack on their country in order not to lose the coming elections. Moreover, there are many campaigns to increase the level of fear of terrorist attacks which may be fabricated by this administration or to let happen without resistance, consequently its war will be intensified against Islam and the governments which do not help it, will help it to control the wealth of oil, and will help Israel to attach its neighboring countries or defeating their resistance. On the other hand, the big companies prepare the public opinion to this through the mass media as usually happens.


On the other hand, as a result of the failure of the American administration's plans in Iraq exclusively, it has decided to decrease its dependence on the Middle East oil and diminishing the exhaustion of gas by 20 % during the following ten years through depending on Ethanol and other alternatives that form 11% from the total exhaustion of America of oil. For this reason, many farms in that country have changed into constructions for vital or biological fuel production which is considered combustible oils extracted from the natural plants such as corn oil, cotton seeds, or which are produced by the processing of natural juices especially alcohol produced through the fermentation of natural sugary juices such as sugarcane; consequently the prices of canned foods have been highly increased.

Omar Naguib mentioned that the percentage of farms, which changed into such constructions in 2006, has increased by 48% besides the increase of profits springing from the decrease of taxes on the production of vital fuel. Indeed, this will create direct reflections on the alimental resources, whether for man or animal, the drop of the world stored grains, and the rising of grains prices to 100%, consequently the aliment of the world will be decreased. Such matter motivated international organizations and institutions to warn the world against the wide use of vital fuel. John Zelger, the special reporter concerned with right of food in the United Nations, has warned against the use of sugarcane and corn to produce the vital fuel because this may lead to death of thousand of persons worldwide because of hunger.

For these reasons all, the inhabitants of this district daily find themselves treading in a way that will escalate the wars among nations and reaching a blocked way instead of reconsidering the polices, plans, and antiques even for the sake of the Republican party not for the sake of the national American benefits or the benefits of other counties in the region. Unfortunately, this deteriorating situation continues to grow and aggravate while the effective Arab role is absent; rather the Arabs are different, disassociated, and self-destructed; the situation that threatens the whole area.


Coercive displacement:

One of the results of occupying Iraq in 2003 was the Coercive displacement that continues until now. Every month, about 50, 000 Iraqi seek refuge in other countries. In the same time, more than this number immigrated to Iraq and this was the first displacement process from Al Qa'em, Fallujah, and Ramadi. They took thousands to empty schools, destroyed places, desert and other places inside the country within a demographic reconstruction plan.

This eviction and displacement, the largest coercive migration since the Second World War, according to the United Nation Commissioner for Refugees. Many of those to whom we talked considered these actions a contingent result of destruction and murder. Some of them consider the actions a part of the American occupation or the Iranian conception of Iraq after the American occupation. Some of the citizens who were victims of the economic siege as well as the occupation, before they were obliged to leave their homeland, stated that the main aim is to partition Iraq into sectarian mini-states starting with dismantling the army as well as the service, economic, and cultural institutions of the country, plundering and destroying it, besieging cities and villages, excessive usage of power against civilians as well as collective arrests. They also use the most severe ways of torture and launch death troops as well as black water to complete what the regular armies do, to entrust authority to sectarian parties, endeavor to impose the constitution, division as well as federalism by force. This opinion was adopted by many Foreign Research Centers. It is not strange that George Tenet wrote in his memoirs "In the Heart of the Storm", published in the summer of 2007: "in a short time, we as well as the Iraqis realized that the aim of the American occupation is to reform the Iraqi society".

Reforming the Iraqi society is not only demographical, but also an economic, agricultural, administrative and legal reformation as the mechanism is in the hands of the occupier and sedition circulator. We do not forget that the  resolution 81of Primer stops the Iraqi stereotyped agriculture, monopolies the distribution of seeds and stops the laboratories, As well as afflicting agriculture with chemical pollutants, ceasing production and desertification. We all know that this was proceeded by a comprehensive besiege, which is considered as a genocide crime that did not happen before. The resolution also banned aviation in the north and south of Iraq under the pretext of protecting the Shiites and Kurds in 1991 and 1992. This was only a plan to dismantle Iraq and displacing its people as well as changing its population form. However, the occupation increased the way of coercive displacement and it seems that they plan to settle the refugees in their refuges.

Therefore, some believe that the International Organizations overlook the Refugees. There are some complaints that in many cases the Refugee was asked about his religious sect to attract the Sunnis toward Jordan. They discuss a plan to merge the west of Iraq with the Palestinian east of Jordan. As for the displacement of the Christians, they are attracted toward Syria and Lebanon. Some believe that the Kurds have a role in this. Other wonder, since what was there a social conflict on sectarian grounds? Did not the previous regime treat the Sunni Rafidis like the Shiites? There was a sectarian intermarry, but the Shi`ism and Sunnism should be turned into cultures and the social and class struggle should be turned to serve market economy. The occupation divided people as well as the NGOs into either a supporter of occupation or an opponent. It is more useful to call those who left their houses as fugitives and not refugees to differentiate between them and the Palestinian refugees who struggle to be given the right to return to their country.

Dr. Abdul Wahid Al Gassani says: "although the Iraqi coercive displacement is considered a war crime, genocide crime, a crime against humanity and a part of aggression according to the International agreements, the case did not draw the attentions of the international community, its institutions or the Arab countries as well as the institutions of the Arab common work, in spite of its serious threat upon peace and national international security. The Arab League did not discuss the threat of the Iraqis coercive displacement and replacing them with Iranians on the Iraqi identity and the Arab national security. As for UN Organizations (UNICEF, World Food Program, UN Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Immigration Organization, UNESCO and others) did not think about preparing an inclusive aid program that is suitable for the problem. The Red Cross, which the International community commissioned with applying the International Human Law and watching countries commitment to it, did not work actively to discover the dimensions of this crime to stop it immediately and order to send the displaced people to their homes immediately. The material dimensions of the crime are known and its cause is the American occupation, Iran and all those who participated with the occupation or encouraged the American-Iranian occupation of Iraq. This crime does not abated by time. The question is: what shall we (the Iraqis) do to create a public opinion that puts the countries as well as the international Organizations before their legal and ethical responsibility to cease these crimes and return the displaced people back to their houses and compensating them. On the other hand, to refer the criminals to the international criminal courts?"

During this year of tragedy, there was an important group of those who have qualifications that are more than any other Arab country (54 Universities in Iraq while there are four Universities in Syria. They fled from Iraq lest they die in their country. Some claim that 800 person of Mossad to dissolute the academic people or to displace them by force. This causes a crisis for many of them and the psychological crisis is not the little. Great potentials may be lost through unemployment or other works that are not suitable for their potentials. In addition, the money that was spent on their education gets lost without being invested as they are prevented from work and live without a sustaining salary. We saw some of them who kept their tears in their eyes and refused begging or talking about the current situation. They have no legal residence, passports, pension or required care of their country. They have no right to work. In Jordan, as some Iraqis claim, some of its CIA preferred to stay in Syria, although At-Talibani demanded to exert pressure on them to take them out of Syria. However, where will they go, while they cannot be granted Visa when they are invited to conferences in Egypt, Lebanon or Jordan.

As for the United States, that appropriated hundreds of billions to cover the expenditures of its war against Iraq, did not find what to do with the Iraqis who fled from their country to save their souls, dignity and honor from the assault of the American army and the mercenaries as well as the ugliness of the new regime's militias.

But if this arrogant force entered Iraq to carry out its schemes, what is the matter with the United Nations that was involved officially in the first Gulf war and the unjust besiege of Iraq for 13 years as well as using the prohibited weapons and the environmental pollution, deformation as diseases caused by these weapons and affected generations of the Iraqis, their children and those who did not delivered yet. This international organization that accuse its officials of corruption and squandering the money of the Iraqis, continue to turn itself away from the requirements of those people inside Iraq and outside it.

UN Organizations like UNICEF, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and World Health Organization behave in a bureaucratic way that is far away from transparency by allocating little funds that do not exceed millions of dollars. These allocations are nothing if compared to the gains of those who smuggle the Iraqi crude oil. Some Iraqi refugees claim that everyday 500,000 oil barrel are stolen and are smuggled to Iran for the quarter of its price, in addition to what the Americans steal (three million barrel everyday). These allocations are less than the cost of hours of the expenditure of the American forces (which some say that it will not withdraw from Iraq, but it will stay in specific military bases). What about those refugees that in their name donating campaign are launched, how can they life like this while knowing that there is a well east of Basra, which is sufficient to cover the Iraqi budget for 33 years even if they sold the barrel for $50? Is it there fault that they preferred to flee from their country than to die generally, either in genocide, kidnapping and torturing in Abu Gharib prison, or the prisons of the Interior Ministry or hidden prisons that did not discovered yet?

Of course there are some of those who preferred to stay in their country and sacrifice with their souls and they are those who will determine its future. Nevertheless, should we consider those who fled to save their souls as treacherous? Should he cooperate with the occupation forces to satisfy the current Iraqi leaders? Anyway, the main reason for the situation of those refugees is not only the occupation, but also those who helped and supported the occupation. We should take legal actions against those people and compel them to pay compensations that are not only financial, but also moral compensations for the victims in return of this grievous stage of their life. The crime that was committed against the Iraqi people still a crime even if all the international influences colluded to justify it, eventually, a suit would be brought in the name of those who were harmed to compensate their honor and their right to live as the humans who live under the entity of homelands.

Palestinians of Iraq:

The Palestinians are the most subjected people of the inhabitants of Iraq to be tortured, especially after the collapse of the previous regime. There were charged with supporting the ousted president, Saddam Hussein, and they were granted preference in his time. In addition, many of them belong to the Arab Sunnis. Consequently, they are suspected to support some revolt Sunnis who oppose the government. Since the first two months of occupation in 2003, the Arab Committee for Human Rights alarmed against their situation in a field report issued in different languages and was adopted by the most important international institutions as a reference.

There were 30 thousands of Palestinians in Iraq before the Anglo-American invasion in March 2003 and indeed they were recorded by the commissariat of refugees. Actually, their true number was more than this number but it started to decrease since they became a target to the militias and since they have been persecuted. The commissariat believes that Iraqis are subject to danger because they are chased off, kidnapped, tortured, and sometimes killed while the Iraqi government and the foreign forces take no action to protect them. Indeed, from 200 too 300 persons were killed and their corpses were found whether in morgues or dunghills; the corpses frequently are disfigured and carried the impacts of torture. Moreover, many Iraqis were forced out after they had received threats of murders; some of them hid themselves in Iraq and some others escaped and lived out borders in gross cruel circumstances; they live in camps that were established in the desert between Syria and Jordan and face many difficulties to enter into Syria or Jordan or to be settled in any other countries. During three years ago, the United Nations could not close Ar-Rouishid camp, was established among other camps in the Jordan desert and contains nearly one thousand persons, because they failed in finding a country to receive its inhabitants.


The commissariat of refugees assesses the number of Palestinians who live in tragic condition inside camps along the borders between Syria and Iraq at 1400 persons. The number of refugees in Al Walid camp, one of the camps established on the Syrian borders, has increased sevenfold during five months along with the attacks that targeted the Palestinians in Baghdad. On the other hand, fire was broken out in At Tanaf camp, contains 341 Palestinian families, because of the explosion of a gas pipe inside a tent. Consequently, eleven Palestinian families were harmed by such fire which destroyed 33 tents. The number of injured people reached 41 persons because of the asphyxia, burns, and scrambling. Afterwards, the refugees sent a call for help to save the harmed people who lost everything; they lost the tents, canned foods, the necessities, and now live in the open.


The official of protection file in the high commissariat of refugees in the United Nations has described the situations of the refugees as dangerous and becomes worse due to the heat of summer and the cold of winter which particularly affect the kids badly. Al Walid camp has one doctor who is also a Palestinian refugee, moreover, the camp lacks the regular supply of water to the extent that every refugee obtains 1.50 liter of bottled water every two days and the camp is far from the nearest hospital in Iraq nearly four hours by car on a very dangerous road; meanwhile the commissariat of refugees is not allowed to be present continuously in such places due to security reasons.


The official pointed to the complicated procedures to reach the camp through Syria and the lack of safety in the Iraqi aspect which hinder the efforts of relief believing that: "indeed it is a tragedy when death starts to take the souls of those people after they manage to escape from Iraq to save themselves because of simple illnesses that can be cured". The refugees called the human institutions which supervise their camps to gather the Palestinian families in At Tanaf, Al Walid, and Al Houl camps in the Syrian town Al Hisika. The girl Nidaa', for example, which was injured in the burn of Al Walid camp; she is treated alone in one Arab country while her mother in At Tanaf camp and her father in Al Walid camp.


A year ago, Syria stopped receiving Palestinian refugees from Iraq after permitting 250 persons to enter and gave the opportunity only for the pregnant women and sick people in At Tanaf camp to enter for treatment in its hospitals provided that they would return to the camp again after fulfilling their purposes. Syria, which hosts 430 thousand Palestinian refugees recorded in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the near East, asked other Arab countries in the area to receive a section of the Palestinian refugees coming from Iraq. The refugees' destiny ended to India, Canada, Norway, Malaysia, Cyprus, and Turkey after both Syria and Jordan had refused to receive the refugees on borders living in At Tanaf, Al Walid, and Ar Rouishid camps. Although the settlement of refugees is very slowly, the Czech government agreed at last to host one hundred refugees and Brazil accepted to host 97 persons from Ar Rouishid camp on the Iraq-Jordan borders. Moreover, while writing this report we were informed that three Palestinians families would be transferred from Al Walid desert camp in order to be settled in Brazil. On the other hand, Sudan agreed to host the Palestinian refugees on the Syrian-Iraqi borders without clarifying the nature and circumstance of the place in which the refugees will live in.


Two years ago, 500 Palestinian refugees reached India through Syria and waiting to be accepted as refugees in other countries. Most of refugees who suffer alienation and poverty and lack of knowledge about the language and customs of the Indian society, feel that the Indian society rejects them especially they live in Hindus districts who do not eat meat nor communicate with foreigners. Bus as for the reason for their coming to India, one of them said that a Kurd Iraqi contrabandist promised to deliver them to New Zealand in return for $7000 for each person. The contrabandist undertook preparing phony Iraq passport and other papers. Nevertheless, as soon as they reached India, he took the rest of money they agreed upon under the pretext of providing them passports from the embassy of New Zealand and vanished leaving them in unknown places and lands in which they know none. After they were recorded as refugees in the United Nation Office, they received pensions which do not satisfy the simplest necessities of life; 2245 Rupees ($56) for the paterfamilias and 750 Rupees ($18.75) for every individual. However, as for the Palestine embassy in India, it never contacts with them nor gives aids for them, as they said, and if they tried to contact with it, it sends them to the United Nation Office and sometimes mocks at them if they persist in their requests.


- Iraqis in the neighboring countries:

Before tackling the situation of the Iraqi refugees in Syria, we will briefly discuss their situation in Jordan, where there is a significant class of the rich Iraqis with high financial capabilities, (at least 100,000 Iraqis either merchants or influenced people, according to Iraqi sources) if compared to those in Syria. Three years ago, the Jordanian government commissioned a Norwegian institution to estimate the number of the Iraqi refugees in Jordan. The institution estimated the number at 250,000 Iraqi refugees. Nevertheless, it is heard that there are more than 700,000 Iraqi refugees in that country. The Iraqis had to put from $20,000 to $70,000 in the bank to be granted residence in Jordan. Moreover, sometimes he would be granted the Jordanian nationality by paying an amount of money, especially in the first year of the Iraqi war. This residence is to be renewed yearly, but the Jordanian authorities recently prevented the Iraqis from entering into Jordan claiming that there is no enough place for more refugees.

Today, the Iraqis should have an entrance Visa for Jordan. If he stayed after the expiration date of his Visa, one will be fined two US dollars for every day after the expiration of his Visa. There are many restrictions on accepting the Iraqi child in the public schools in Jordan. After the conference of the Iraqis hosting countries held on the 26th of last July in Amman, the Jordanian authorities agreed to accept the Iraqi students in public schools for the new academic year without residence visa. In this conference, the Jordanian government received $250, 000000 as an aid for the Iraqi refugees. It's also said that Jordan receives one billion dollars every year as aids, while education and health care are not free. Today they discuss the potential of lifting violations and limiting residence period to be for six months only.

Some people claim that the Iraqis are asked about the sect one belongs to on the borders. Some gulf states toughly treat the Iraqis, while they should aid them. A former Saudi diplomat stated: "They do not want to vex the United States". On the other hand, many Iraqis have lived in Iran for 30 years and do not have any passports. In Yemen, where the Iraqis do not exceed 60,000 people, the entrance Visa became necessary. However, the restrictions there are not severe and they are treated properly. Seeking an academic work is easy as the job opportunities are being covered by non-Yemeni people. The residence related to labor contracts is to be renewed yearly. Nevertheless, there are some security measurements lest the Iraqi pattern be repeated. Out and out, the western countries, as Europe granted asylum to the elite only. The United States stated that it would accept 7000 Iraqi refugees, mostly of those who worked with it. As for Canada, it stipulates that the Iraqi should have $100,000 as well as a University Certificate to be granted the Canadian nationality. On the other hand, Australia prefers the middle-aged refugees to populate it. And so on.

The Iraqis in Syria:

Refuge of the Iraqis to Syria was in groups and included many waves. The first one was at the end of the eighties. It included 100,000 people, who formed a political bloc of communists, nationalists, democrats and those who oppose the regime of Saddam Hussein. They soon left to other countries seeking refuge. After the Iraqi-Iranian war, another wave reached its apex in 1991. It consisted of some soldiers who fled from north of Iraq to Syria. Like the first wave, there were no tensions between them and the hosting community. They soon found refuge in other countries. The third wave came to Syria during the economic blockade imposed upon Iraq. They searched for job opportunities; some of them returned to Iraq, others found an outlet to travel outside Syria. The fourth wave was the biggest one for including between one million and half to one million and eighty thousand who still live in Syria, including those who came to Syria in summer to visit their families. (Some unofficially stated that the number of the Iraqis in Syria is two millions, stating that those who are not recorded at the Migration and Passports Authority entered Syria through paying bribes). This migration included a sectarian variety in contrary to that in the eighties, when migration included the Shiites only. Some fear that a fifth wave may happen soon, after the partitioning that we see its indications. This depends on the ability of the resistance to frustrate the American schemes, in spite of the American stubbornness to achieve their American objectives behind the occupation of Iraq.

This fourth wave included a main group of the threatened and wanted people who are not in a bad need for aid; they are former politicians, leaders, officers and previous security bodies. In addition, there are some threatened academicians, and specialists. The second group is from the non-threatened as well as rich people, and merchants, who were blackmailed, therefore, transferred their money. Half of this group may be in need for treatment. The medical institutions in Iraq are turned into security headquarters for the militias because of the security situation. Therefore, people had to seek safety outside their country. The third group includes those who are threatened due to sectarianism or racial extermination, and junior employers who belong to the Bath Party.

As for the rich people (about 10%) who brought much money with them and invested it in buying real estates, commercial projects, and houses (in Al-Asad villages only, there are more that two thousand villas), there are others who are in need for help by any means. Others sold their properties- against their will- before they flee from their country. Flight in these conditions does not allow the person to make use of his properties, as it is not easy to sell the apartment when it is plundered and it is difficult to take money with you when thieves steal your car and your house. Some of them return to Iraq after spending their savings and did not find any way to meet the necessities as he is deprived of work in the hosting country and is deprived of his salary and pension in original country, or because the education of his children is not insured for all academic years. Others are not able to live in Syria or to return to Iraq, so they do their best to be granted asylum in a western country that guarantees their minimum living and this is called settlement. However, settlement is not granted except for few people who consider themselves to be lucky (Christians are the most to be granted settlement), or for those who helped the occupation forces as they do not submit to the strict measures of asylum. Many of those people live in As-Sayeda Zainab, Gudaidat `Artouz, Gurmanah, Al Yarmouk Camp, and At-Tall. Many of them move to other governorates because of over population and high prices in the Capital. All those people are in need for help and aid, while Humanitarian Organizations are not allowed to help them. In the district of As-Sayeda Zainab, there are many aspects of misery; some people claim that this district includes the poorest and most ignorant people. You may find many families sharing the same apartment and eating one meal per day, or many men living in the same room to share its rent, they left their families to search for a means of living. Though some of them were prominent, they accepted to do hard works like being porters. They have experienced life of humiliation after they were honored even if the person was living with brother or his relative. An Iraqi stated: "When visiting the streets near the shrine, the person feel as if he is in Baghdad in the district of `Allawwi Al-Hullah, or the Sacred Kathemiah, as the markets there are similar to these Baghdadi areas. The massive number of the Iraqis in this area affected the names of shops and restaurants and the Iraqi food as well, even the street that is 50 meters from the Shrine was called "The Iraqis Street". It is strange that many types of Iraqi fish are specially brought from Iraq to the Iraqis Street. They chose this place because of its environment that is like that of Iraq and this may alleviate their feeling of separation from their homeland and their people.

Damascus is not only a safe haven for the Iraqis who fled from the flames of war in their country; it also became, especially in this summer, a meeting place for the families that separated from each other for years because of migration to remote countries. You can hear many details about life in Iraq that the newspapers and channels do not mention, through visiting the coffee shops and public parks where the Iraqis meet each other to feel warmth and discuss the current situation of their country.

As for Iraqi children's education, there is a hope that about 75,000 Iraqi children would enter school this year, given that Syria does not apply the obligatory education. The main problem lies in the academic education because of limiting the accepting of students to specific specializations. In addition, there is a special system to be applied to Arab new comers and the foreigners who come to its institutes. In addition, there are large sums of money that must be paid for the university beside other requirements, as the faculty of Medicine requires $6000 and the faculty of Engineering requires $5000, and so on. Despite paying the expenses of Evaluation, It delays the student for an academic year. Besides, in the Syrian universities students study in Arabic, while in Iraq they study in English. Despite the facilities of the National Leadership of the Bath ruling Party, the seats still limited; and Charity begins at home! In addition, the private education is very difficult for the refugee who does not have a permanent salary. Some rich Arab countries were appealed to construct Universities, as an investment, but Lifeless are them whom you call upon! Some Syrian or Iraqi investors have interest in this. At the same time, the Arab League should do anything, as it is responsible for not leaving ignorance to spread among the Iraqi people.

On the other hand, as the occupation forces resulted in thieves and plunder gangsters as well as organized Mafias to kidnap children and women. It also resulted in Slave trade. Some activists in a feminist association stated that the child or the virgin are being sold for $10,000 and are forcefully traveled through Kuwait, Turkey, Greece and Cyprus to Gulf countries. One night after, the girl is taken unwillingly to the white-slaves market. We are unable to watch these cases or notify about them as there is a center supposed to be there to take care of them. Therefore, there are some endeavors to work with the Syrian Feminists Union, for the legitimacy of NGOs is absent.

Of course, there must be prostitution rings in Syria to exploit Iraqi women, especially that there is a massive number of them who have no financial resources or provider. Necessity is not only the mother of invention but also the mother of degradation. However, we are not sure whether it is a phenomenon, as we tried to investigate about it, but we found that the Iraqi women who work in prostitution rings in Syria are small to be considered in a massive number of the Iraqis that include all social groups. However, in every community some people are obliged to commit crimes or practice prostitution because of special circumstances. We are not sure whether there are prostitution rings like other countries, but we should prosecute those who trade in white slaves or compel women, sometimes out of their will, to work in the market of money laundering, drug smuggling, and human smuggling.

We also drew attention to the fact that discussing this subject may be thorny, not because of honor and disgrace, but because when we talk about temporary marriage and differentiating between what is a true marriage and what is not more than selling the body. The results of wars, firstly reflects on weak people and analyzing the parental freedom and strictness. As the occupation confiscates the right of life, it also confiscates the right of freedom and honor when woman is classified as a prostitute and not a human. The absence of political and economic stability causes extremism whether through excessive freedom or strictness or through coercive imposing of Hijab (Headscarf), or selling her body to live and save herself from death; consequently this would lead it to a situation in which she will not be able to stipulate.

Economic aspect:

Statistics indicate that Syria was in need for ten years to reach this number of population (1.5 million to two millions in a short time). Normally, through birth, population has corresponding arrangements such as residence, education opportunities, medical treatment, and work. However, such unexpected and rapid increasing requires following wise policies that go along with this increase without people being burdened its complications. The current situation raises many worries about the future, especially with the absence of sufficient international aids.

This migration has its negative and positive aspects. While the consumer benefited from dropping of vehicles prices because of the increase of demands. A Syrian governmental research pointed out that the Iraqis helped increase the prices of Real Estates and rents to more than 20%, and the increase of the prices of essential commodities as well. The consumption of electricity increased by 16%, and there was a rationing in the consumption of electricity and water in Syria for months in a very hot summer.

The Syrian people complain about the increase of electricity prices that led to high prices in all the electrically produced commodities. There was an argument among the government about raising the prices of petroleum derivatives and it was postponed until passing the increase of electricity prices. The Iraqis are not the only ones to be responsible for this raising, as they are victims; victim of the greedy capitalists who have benefited from the gulf request of petroleum derivatives and deprived Lebanon of a part of this summer's share. He is a victim of the policy of the government that is led by the Democratic Arab Socialist Union party in Syria and other opposition parties that are responsible for the economic decline. The party considered that the Syrian economic policies drew the attention of the Iraqi refugees who escaped the seditions and persecution in their home and tried to burden them a part of the responsibility and to commercialize their cause both in national and international arenas. In the same time, many of the refugees still spend the money they brought with them or took from their relatives, while disregarding the dependence of the Syrian economy for many years on the Iraqi petroleum taken free or for nominal prices. This led to saving much money for the Syrian budget.

The International Monetary Fund estimated the costs of the Iraqi refugees on the Syrian Economy to be about $1.3 billion (3.7% of the total national production), while Syria estimates this to be $1.6 billion. The governmental support for essential commodities cost the country $340 million, in addition to the costs of sanitary support, free education, and water. Some claim that Al-Maliki offered free food provisions for the Iraqi refugees in Syria, but the Syrian government did not accept it as it suggested receiving aids in the form of petroleum derivatives. Both sides did not reach an agreement and decided to form a committee to discuss the suggestions relating to aids. An Iraqi diplomat described the Syrian request of support from Baghdad as "extortion". The consultant of the Iraqi Prime Minister announced that his country would not provide Syria with crude oil for a price lesser than that of the international market because its support for the Iraqi refugees there, stating that the discussions were about forming specialized bilateral committees concerning education and health affairs as well as other affairs.

However, we cannot deny the positive aspects of the migration of the Iraqis on the Economic level. Investing two billion dollars in the economic ways raised the Syrian National Income turning Syria to a tourist country that makes use of hard currency, unlike Jordon, Syria does not stipulates depositing $20,000 in the bank to accept residence.

The advantage is not only the effect of what the Iraqi refugees spent on the Syrian economy; but also their existence in Syria is a political balance and a trump card in the political discussions that sometimes exploit slips of his opponent by a severe pragmatism (this trump card is not only used by one of them, but by both). There is also a benefit out of the aids that Syria requested from the International Community, and deserves it to face the misfortunate situation of a large number of the Iraqi refugees there. However, these monies are still forbidden to this country because of some political reasons to pressure this country, which opposes the American policies in the area and to stir problems through the refugees there. However, the Iraqi authority should guarantee the sufficient provision to its homeless people and respond to their needs. If corruption, bribery and plunder of the Iraqi wealth by the occupation and its supporters; what should be paid to the homeless Iraqis is a little bit of the Iraqi wealth.

Fantasy and reality


Actually, there is an ambience that we felt through the reality and through the speech we heard from some people; most of them were from a middle social and cultural class. We can depict the mainstream of Iraq that it is like all images one forms for "the other" confining his rich character to some superficial features that are mostly folkloric and negative. This happens despite the striking similarity between two neighboring nations with one language, culture, and heritage. However, this is the relationship between "the self" and "the other" regardless who "the other" is. Therefore, the Iraqi character seems to be different from the Syrian one; it is "rough, boorish, and that they do not behave as refugees in a hosting country with open warm arms and willingly bore their burdens". No doubt, this depiction has some false accusations and exaggeration.


The Iraqis are also shown as "having a purchasing power that is greater than the Syrian citizen that enables him to buy canned foods and pay rents for rich residence to the extent that he shares the Syrian with his residency and life". Actually, this image is not identical with the fact that there is great deal of poor Iraqi refugees who live on the aids of their families, subsides, or savings. Perhaps their modesty and sufferings may be the real reasons for their real conditions. Uneasiness was clear on the faces of the people who spoke to us as if they blame such refugees who increased their crises, though there is a wide Syrian class who benefited from the existence of the rich Iraqi refugees, besides many groups of people resorted to live in steady residential blocks that are mostly residential areas for the people whose incomes are moderate or limited.


Such conditions motivated some natives to refuse, perhaps unconsciously, the new comers who lived in some districts named of Iraqi towns. Indeed, such natives have not realized that the coming of Iraqi refugees was the factor that exposed the service and economic crises in Syria. Nevertheless, we can say that there is no hostility and the matter is limited to action and reaction. Moreover, in such conditions it is easy to cast the responsibility of problems on the other; such other who is in lower rank because of the lack of belongingness though bearing the nationality along with the unstable economic and social condition.


On the other hand, the majority Iraqis we met expressed their gratitude to the Syrian authorities that hospitably hosted them in contrary to what happens in many Arab countries that treated the Iraqis as criminals while on borders! The Iraqis praised the Syrian people, who opened their hearts and homes for them and treated them with warm morals and solidarity, which result in vanishing the natural tension in such situations. Others feel ashamed to meet the Syrian people for increasing the burdens on them; the salaries are the same while the prices became higher. Nothing is left but some wishes and hopes regarding the treatment of authorities towards them. The criticism was poured on their authorities, occupation, and agents.





The legal situation


The residence firstly was given for a week and then for a month, the refugee is asked to go outside the borders and then come back, consequently he will get a visa allowing him to reside for three months if he gets a contract for the flat he rented. Residence is not granted to non-Syrians except: whenever he is married to a Syrian woman, owns real estate (his name is not registered in the real estate contract, but the name of the Syrian partner; this allows him to sue the partner or to resort to trickery), an investor, or he or one of his sons being enlisted in a school or university. The annual temporary residence is renewed automatically. Apart from this, the refugee lives in worry and pressures until he gets the residence, however when he gets it, the residence does not grant him the right of work. Therefore, they might be outlawed. As for the small projects, they are established under the name of a partner Syrian.


The borders suffer from the over- crowdedness at Al-Walid passage; it includes three windows for men and two for women, besides the security clashes and arresting some persons (Once, twelve cars including the passengers were destroyed during half of an hour for crossing towards Iraqi side). The passenger suffers also form the long way; more than 380 km taking six hours besides the probable accidents and death in buses during travel. The visa costs twenty thousands Iraqi dinars (equal to fifteen dollars) besides seven dollars back and forth, that is to say, the whole cost is fifty dollars. Indeed, this happens every four months. The whole family is asked to go outside the borders because none of them can renew the residence for his family, moreover, the Iraqi police sometimes resorts to violence because of crowdedness, scramble, etc. It is possible to pay bribery and avoid this suffering. If someone renewed his residence after it is too late, he is considered to be outlawed and would be punished by decreasing the period of residence from three months to two or to be imprisoned and then expelled. Official or unofficial fines are paid where there is coerce bloodsucking made by customs and security systems in order to receive fines and bribery (unlike Jordan where the employee takes a sufficient salary in order not to resort to bribery).


In the same manner, he who can pay one hundred dollars will be able to go to Lebanon where the borders are safe and residence is renewed by passing the borders. The transportation company provides him four days and three nights tour by bus besides providing dinner and breakfast, twenty dollars to enter Beirut or Junyah, and twenty dollars for the visa to expend totally one hundred and forty dollars at least, given that none can enter Lebanon alone in order not to escape. Indeed, there were some tries to escape into Turkey and some persons drown on swimming towards the Italian-Greek borders. On the other hand, he who wants to inter into Sweden, he pays from ten to eighteen thousand dollars for the persons helping him to inter into the country.


As for the authorized visas, they are various; the authorized kind of visas nowadays is the kind (N), but it will expire by the end of the year. The kind (M) is no longer authorized. In addition, there is the kind (S) which can be obtained from the embassy in few days after presenting the photos and documents regarding the nationality. Nevertheless, it is not approved by the majority of embassies. Another kind called (G) which exclusively issued in Iraq. It takes two months to obtain it, authorized to travel to the world countries wholly, and valid for eleven years. The United States and some of European countries admit nothing but it. If it is necessary, the kind (S) might be changed to the kind (G) in return for $350 as bribery. The information is wholly attributed to the concerned people.


Having fulfilled our mission, we knew that the Syrian Foreign Ministry ordered its missions abroad to start in executing the new procedures to let the Iraqis enter the country starting from 10 September. Such procedures cancel the previous ones that allow renewing the residence automatically after the Iraqi goes out the borders every three months. The new decision imposed visa on Iraqis and paying $50 for the Syrian embassy in Baghdad to apply the principle of equality and to limit the increasing numbers of the Iraqi comers to Syria. Granting visas is exclusively for "the owners of economic and commercial organizations, i.e. the members of the commercial, industrial, and agricultural chambers by the virtue of a signed certificate from such chambers". The visas are granted also for "the scientists who are members in the academic staff of the Iraqi universities, the high institutes, and the scientific research centers according to visas issued by the university or the center". Granting visa in entitled to the diplomatic Syrian missions and not the borders points like the past. The new orders make a condition that "the seeker of visa must have a residence in the country where the mission is authorized or having visas from the Iraqi mission".


Such procedures are nothing but an attempt to stop the entrance of Iraqis into Syria where the number of the coming persons is 30 thousands monthly, besides the increasing economic, social, and security burdens and the increasing rate of crimes in the country, as stated by the foreign minister, and the global society has not fulfilled its duties and the Iraqi government refused to help the refugees. The existing refugees should be "organized" by not allowing the ones who are incompatible with the Syrian laws. This means not "expelling all Iraqis", though their security situation is pressing and uncontrollable. Moreover, the Syrian government decided to add some amendments to this decision, which allow "the students in Syria to obtain the visas by the virtue of visa".


With regard to this issue, the chief of Iraqi Agreement Front issued a request to the Syrian foreign minister to work seriously on canceling the new procedures, pointing out the effects on the Iraqi refugees in Syria due to applying such procedures. Moreover, Walid Al-Mu`alim promised that the new procedures will not cover the Iraqis in Syria and we will take no action to harm them. On the other hand, the Iraqis in Syria were pervaded by gloomy atmosphere due to such decision which became their chief concern and many thousands of them entered rapidly into Syria before the determined date, and many others went out the borders and entered again to obtain three months residence away from the fires of occupation, killing, and devastation in Iraq".


Unfortunately, this decision has blocked the last way before the Iraqis who try hard to save themselves from the security situation in their country, especially after the neighboring countries stipulating various restrictions on Iraqis. Indeed, Damascus and Baghdad has agreed about forming a mutual committee, headed by the ministers of economy and commerce in the two countries, to evaluate the situation of Iraqis in Syria and the costs of their existence on the Syrian economy in order to compensate the hosting country. Moreover, some sources said that Nor Al Maliki, the Iraqi Prime Minister, was informed during his visit to Damascus in August that Syria will execute the new procedures in order to stop the refugees entrance, and he expressed his total consent regarding this decision and promised to help the Syrian government in undertaking their burdens. On the other hand, other source clarified that "some Syrian sides were not satisfied with the statements of Al Maliki and that he will do nothing to the refugees, he is not ready to help his subjects, and the suffering of internal people is severer than the suffering of the external people; and supporting them may stimulate other people to emigrate from Iraq". Nevertheless, Syria asked the Arab countries to establish an Arab fund to aid the countries that host Iraqi refugees.


The decision of Syrian government was not issued arbitrarily; rather it was issued, according to other sources, following the visit of Nor Al Maliki, the Iraqi prime minister, who "has not responded to the Syrian request regarding undertaking the burdens of Iraqi refugees in Syria". Indeed, he "does not want to offer help for them in order not to encourage other Iraqis to emigrate and how he could help the emigrants and leave those who stay and bear the difficult situations". Besides, "he has a tacit wish that the neighboring countries may undertake the security responsibility in his country". It should be taken into consideration that Damascus has previously restrained the procedures of Iraqis entrances into Syria following the visit of the Iraqi president, Jalal Talibani, in the beginning of this year and then facilitated the procedures by granting a visa that valid for one month provided that the concerned man is asked to go outside the borders to renew it for three months. This happened after the beginning of world concern regarding the refugees' crisis represented in the conference of granting countries in Geneva in the middle of last April and holding the special sub- committee of action regarding the refugees which emanated from the conference of (Iraq security) in Sharm Al Sheikh.



The high commissariat of refugees


Naturally, we had a visit to the high commissariat of refugees, which is considered by most Iraqis to be unavailing because the United Nations organizations are controlled by the American administration so that they have to be silent and deal with Iraqi issues with apathy in order to conceal the American project. On the other hand, there are increasing complains about corruption of its employees, they never introduce any facilitations, the distinguishing feature of their work is bureaucracy, and if the Iraqi refugee went out to Iraq, he became no longer a refugee. Moreover, the few enlisted numbers of Iraqis people in its records is due to the unavailingness and ineffectiveness of such organization especially because waiting in tremendous long queues is worthless that the examiner takes too long time to record the names. This means not that our reporters do not confess that there is a group of employees who do their work properly and show sympathy with them. Even though they prefer to deal with Iraqi employees who can easily understand their problems, and confess that the problem is too gross to undertake it.


Many Iraqis do not try to apply for the asylum to the United Nations because of lack of confidence in it, the ignorance about the mechanisms of United Nations action, and that there are many complains that the meetings are determined after many months in Doma territory due to the crowdedness before the center in the capital, the long queues, and the costs of transportations. On the other hand, some people are ready to go through hell in order to secure a steady situation for their families through obtaining the temporary protection that protect them firstly against expelling, departure, or eviction if the conditions in the homeland changed. Also it can secure a residence in a foreign country that respects the rights of refugees ands grants them the right to work and live honorably; taking into consideration that the hosting country bears the expenses of human asylums.


The commissariat answered such criticism stating that it is unable to follow such tremendous numbers of refugees, the financial abilities are so weak where the granter countries do not respond to its requests as it should be, part of the aids is expended on the executive works, indeed bureaucracy is existing but it is not the distinguishing feature of their work, since the outset of the current year it started in recording the refugees more accurately, especially after the political decision taken in February stated that all citizens in south and middle of Iraq are refugees regardless their legal situation, as for the inhabitants of the north governorates, they are determining who accepts the conditions among them in order to be considered as refugees, and the meeting takes 45 minutes and consequently the situation of refugee is determined and then he is enlisted in the suitable section in order to solve his problems.


Not long ago, the high commissariat of refugees has recorded the Iraqi refugees existing only in Damascus where one hundred and twenty eight thousand names were recorded. Forty or fifty employees worked to enlist their names and as for the other refugees, ten employees have traveled to the places where the refugees live; they live in the northeast of Syria in Al Hiska territory. It is expected that six thousand Iraqi refugees will be recorded in two months and ten thousand will follow them in the following year from all over Syria.


According to the narrators, there are few persons among these refugees (15%) who fulfill the terms of settlement and acceptance in a foreign country. As if there is no treatment for them in Syria, or because of the necessity for family reunion, or because of the lonely women with their kids, or the involved people are torture victims, or whatever from the restrictions which are eleven. Such used terms were expanded for Iraqi in compression with other refugees. However, the final word is of the countries which have the right of settlement. Actually these countries should abide themselves by some certain duties though the terms of settlement and the bases of dealing with the refugees are the same in all countries.


It's known that regarding 11 thousands out of 200 thousands refugees in Syria, Jordon, and Lebanon, some recommendations were issued to the governmental American agencies, but half of such agencies have not commenced the procedures which enable the refugees to enter the United States. For example, the medical examination and the security reports about the refugees which may take a year at least. Some legal activists in Washington have protested against the slow, weak, bad-financed and complicated efforts exerted by the United States to receive the Iraqi refugees. It was said that the reasons behind such actions were the tense relations with Syria which receives the great deal of refugees and the few numbers of the employees to the extent that four meeting only are held every day which makes the process slow.


The commissariat of refugees complains about the meager budget allotted for the Iraqi refugees though it is $15 million in 2007 after it was $2 million in 2006 and became $40 million since the Jordon conference held in last April. However, as for Iraq from the inside, the high commissariat of refugees strives hard to gain $223 million in order to give instant aid for the needy people taking into consideration that the number of emigrants inside Iraq is two million at least.


The commissariat launched a program along with the alimental world program in order to give aid for ten thousand Iraqi families in Syria including 35 persons. The representative of commissariat said: "Actually the aid will be given to the neediest families and this is a beginning and we hope to provide aid for the needy families wholly". The aid was: canned foods, rice, and sugar, and the Syrian Red Crescent distributes it every month. It is expected that such aid will be given to 50 thousand Iraqi refugees before the end of the year 2007. Informing them about this issue, messages were sent to the mobile phones of the refugees; the most successful way, as the members of commissariat believe, in connecting the refugees who usually have no permanent address, but from the other hand the mobile phones are more available with them or with their neighbors.


As for the student of the preliminary education, they are 250 thousand but one hundred of them may join the schools this year. An American envoy stated that the United States will increase its support to the countries which host the Iraqi refugees through granting them $30 million from $129 million for educating the Iraqi students in the neighboring countries. This happened after the high commissariat of refugees and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) announced that the United Nations intended to send 155 Iraqi student refugees to the schools of the neighboring countries in the school year 2007-2008. This equalization enables 100 thousand students to join the schools in Syria, 50 thousand in Jordon, two thousand in Egypt, 1500 in Lebanon, and 1500 in other countries of the region.


As for the distribution of the foodstuffs, the Syrian Red Crescent bears the responsibility of doing that with the help of the alimental world program which granted the Syrian Red Crescent one thousand tons of foodstuffs to distribute them for 40 thousand person. The Syrian Red Crescent also presents medical service in clinics and some ancillary centers and the commissariat pays the salaries for such services. In addition, the Red Crescent received aids in kind in so much as € 3 million and half which are instruments and equipments.


Indeed, the cooperating work of the commissariat of refuges, the Syrian Red Crescent, the World Health Organization, and the contributions of churches will avail nothing especially in respect with the newcomers from Iraq who reached to the districts of Al Qamishli and Az-Zour and indeed they live in a gross difficult situation in the openness waiting for the donations of the charitable people. In fact, the authorities which do not receive any donations refused to establish tents for them fearing that their accommodation may become permanent on their lands and there were no organizations to bear the expenses of establishing 500 tents.


Whatever the case may be, great deal of Iraqi inhabitants do not have the minimum standard of living, therefore how could they send their sons to school and especially the university while they have not the right to work (to have a license for work, you may pay a three thousand bribery), or how they could make a surgery if it is due, though there are many Red Crescent clinics in various places? Such clinics and centers are scattered in As-Sayeda Zainab, Jermana, Al Mezza, Qudsiya, Berza, and others. Such clinics daily receive not less than 200 sickly people starting from simple examinations to simple surgeries but as for the serious surgeries, they are carried out in certain hospitals and the commissariat pays 85% from the expenses and pays 80% from the expenses of the simple examinations and the is paid by the sick person (this means: 200 lira which is less 50 lira than the expenses paid by the Syrian people). Surely the surgeries carried out in the private hospitals are so expensive, for example, the Catheter costs $500 and the open-heart surgery costs $10000. Actually the illnesses of heart attack, cancer, and many others are so many in a country in which a great deal of fatal and internationally forbidden weapons were used, therefore its air, water, and plants were polluted for a long time. This is if we disregard the severe psychological and nervous pressures because of the long suffering caused by various reasons and what results in consequence from the serious physical illnesses, and the weakness of immune system because of the high oxidization of cells.


In some cases, when the patient comes to his end because of cancer for example, it is preferred to give the medicine to another patient who might be recovered; this is due to the lack of medicines and the medicines of chronic diseases exclusively. Insulin for instance, 50 thousand persons are in need for it while there are 10 thousand doses only in the stores. However, some hospitals present free services for Iraqi people and there is a hot line for the quick treatment, the Red Crescent complained about the great burdens it bears and some criticism was directed to the role of World Health Organization which gives inefficient and inappropriate aids for an organization from the kind of World Health Organization.


When we were passing a private hospital in As-Sayeda Zainab district, an amputee man lying on a car at the reception attracted our attentions. Actually we asked about him and knew that he lost his legs one after another because he was stricken by the blood sugar and there is a lack in Insulin the matter resulted in gangrene set in and he had to have his legs amputated. Moreover, he is threatened with losing his sight. When we carefully examined his matter and mentioned his name to an official in the Red Crescent, the latter confessed that there was a lack in Insulin for a period of time and therefore they could not provide the patient with the due care. However, as for the United Nations commissariat, it already listed his name ten months ago in its records but nothing happened until the current time. It is worth mentioning that such man was a well-known character in his country but now he reached a stage where he receives the charities and a person must be next to him in order to pull his wheelchair. Unfortunately, the tears of this man were dropping silently while he was telling us about his today situation of displacement, inability, lack of work, and so on. Indeed, he had two hundred thousand lira but he expended them all and thereupon he intended to return to Iraq in order to live with his relatives because he is afraid to return home because he is still under threat.


Eventually, we want to mention that the assistant of the refugees' affairs high commissioner met some Syrian officials to discuss the issue of new procedures. She was told: "It is necessary that the global community should deal more seriously with the issue of refugees". The chief of the high commissariat of refugees praised Jordan and Syria because they hosted the Iraqi refugees; on the other hand a few numbers of them went to Egypt, Lebanon, and Turkey. He said that the global community owes them such favor because they bear a highly expensive responsibility, drawing the attentions to the necessity of separating the political aspects, especially with respect to Syria, from the current human tragedies. He also pointed to the Syrian-German treaty of providing aids for refugees describing it saying: "It is a great positive development". Moreover, he did not forget to remind the other countries to tread in the same steps and provide the direct subsidy for Syria and Jordan stressing that the education and health sectors are the neediest for subsidies.



Iraq Embassy:


Actually we visited Iraq Embassy where we met the highest representative (He is charge d'affaires and not an ambassador. He started working at the outset of May 2007 until the nomination of a new ambassador) whom we asked some questions. Besides, we tried to watch the procedures of management before the crowds of citizens who were waiting their turns under the flaming rays of summer sunshine to sign license for movement or to sign their ID cards. Apparently, not less than one thousand persons daily visit the embassy of their country and sometimes the number might be doubled. Indeed, it is no wonder if we know that 8 thousand persons daily enter to Syria during the summer.



The relations between the two countries continued to be disconnected for two decades to the extent that there was no relations at all save the mission of national interests which was headed by Algeria. The matter continued in this manner until the last year when the two countries agreed to recommence the diplomatic relations after the provisional Iraqi government called the Arab countries to send their ambassadors to Baghdad despite the actions of kidnapping and murdering afflicted some of the Arab diplomatists in Iraq. As a result of recommencing the relations at the outset of 2007, Jalal Talibani, the Iraqi president, visited Syria at the head of a great delegation and spent a week there. During this visit, the two counties signed some treaties for cooperation in the security aspects (including extradition of the judicially wanted persons including the supporters of the former president and supporters of the armed struggle against the American forces), and the petroleum, economic, and hydrologic fields. It is supposed that the parliamentary and the cabinet of the two sides to approve such treaties in order to commence putting them into action.

It is worth mentioning that, there are semi-systematic flights between the two countries at the rate of two flights everyday and sometimes less than this because of the bad security conditions in Iraq. Actually a great deal of accusations were attributed to Syria, especially by America, that most of persons who execute the suicidal attacks enter through the Syrian borders and Syria knows this well. On the other hand, the Syrian officials emphasize that they do their best in order to control the borders. Indeed, there are dozens of foreigners in the Syrian jails because of sneaking into Iraq but the borders are so long and difficult to be controlled completely like the borders between the United States and Mexico through which many Mexico emigrants secretly sneaking into America despite the huge means of watching owned by the later.


The embassy cooperates with the Iraqi people in Syria, but with the powers which take part in the political process; this is done according to the orders of decision makers. That is to say, the embassy excludes the rest of powers though it represents all political colors. During the visit of Maliki to Damascus in this summer, a group fifteen Iraqi political characters asked for his meeting to inquire about their rights. However, they were faced by absolute refusal when the charge d'affaires told them that Al Maliki does not meet with opposition figures. The charge d'affaires told the Syrian news agencies that he had a meeting with Iraqi people in Syria save the opposition figures. Some of the people whom we met complained this kind of relations which badly influences dealing with them and fulfilling their requests especially when discrimination done among them on the ethnic, racial, or political basis. In a situation like this, no doubt bribery is overwhelming and we had to believe that it is existed in the high levels before it was occurred before us by chance during our visit.


The passport type (G) is bought by $600 but not officially and there is a (gang) as it is called that shares the money. Iraqi people believe that the number of embassy employees is inefficient to conduct their requests quickly or to give them the required passports, especially when taking into consideration that the newborn babes have to own a private passport. Some Iraqi people never deal with their embassy and resort to the agents because of the jam, the long ranks before the embassy under the heat of the sun, rains, humiliation, bribery, delay in fulfilling requests, and the inefficiency of the embassy to resolve some certain serious issues. In addition, there are some Iraqi people who ask the Syrian government to find a solution to the problem of passports and to talk to the Iraqi government regarding this issue under the pretext of forbidding sneaking into the Syrian land. Moreover, some of them expressed their hope for extending the period of staying and imposing a tax in return for this which will result in financial income to the hosting countries to help them in facing many pressures.


The officials in the embassy believe that the most serious problems they encounter are the problems of food and education because more than half of Iraqi sons living in Syria do not go to schools (some people allege that 33% of them are listed in schools). That is because of the weak financial abilities of some people from one hand, some sons leave the schools in order to work and earning a living for their families from the other hand, and also because some of them were expelled especially from Baghdad, Al Anbar, and Diali without taking their private papers and identifications believing that they would quickly return, but days elapsed, they waited for a long, and lived for the hope of improving the situations.


As for the financial aids and foodstuffs, the embassy of the view that such matter is out of its official work which is limited to managing some executive activities such as signing the passports, birth certificates, and the like. Surely all such activities are highly expensive, for example, the people of a dead person pay one thousand dollars in order to get a certificate allowing them to carry the corpse to Iraq, and thirty dollars in order to extend the period of passport. In order extend the passport, it is imperative to have an ID card but when such ID card is stolen, burnet, or lost among the devastations, then how could man extend his passport of make an ID card? Besides, when man has no ID card or passport, he is considered fugitive from law and becomes subjected to detention or forbidding from entering the country for many years.


Generally, Iraqi people sorrowfully view the handling made by the embassies of their country towards their situations deeming it down the required level especially in Syria and Jordon where the number of refugees is so tremendous in comparison with other countries. They view that it is the duty of embassy to establish specialized offices in the issues of emigrants without delay. The lives of people are in a very dangerous state and in no way they could bear more waiting or delay. This happens in the time where they are afflicted with very difficult financial healthy social educational circumstances which result in losing their sons and daughters between deviation, exploitation, or crime along with the lack of educational and healthy care, despair of tomorrow, the overwhelming of illnesses in the circumstances of oppression and humiliation. Verily they are in a desperate need for this kind of aid and to undertake the responsibility of them in a country like Syria which lives in a regime that does allow the societies and civil institutions to work freely but in very narrow margins.





Naturally, the aids provided by the Syrian authorities from medicine and education in no way satisfy the needs of Iraqi refugees completely, even though there are some projects that aim at establishing private hospitals and eight schools and enlarging one hundred schools. In the same manner, the aids given by the Syrian Red Crescent, the commissariat of refugees, the churches, the individual initiatives of business men or even undistinguished families, or the unknown sides from the civil society which were motivated by the sheer human motives. All this completely, is inefficient to satisfy a small part from the needs, moreover the aids usually reaches not all people who are in dire need for it.


For sure the situation is very critical and will increase more and more in the following months because the situation in Iraq is still stagnant and no agreed solutions by all parts in order to help the country to come out of the quagmire it was trapped in, especially because the last phase in Bush reign, the obstinacy of his administration, and the aggression of the lobby which works behind the scenes and in the big companies craving after the petroleum of Iraq besides the aggravation of the Iranian issue and the foreign pressures on it because of its nuclear file.


Actually the policy of the United States is censured by the global community and the United Nations at the head because of the pressure and bloodsucking of American people. Surely the most important objective of the United States is to stipulate the canon of petroleum, to secure permanent military bases in Iraq, and to resolve the clashes with the internal increasing opposition to the military American existence in Iraq. In order to achieve its objectives, it constricts the competences of the United Nations whenever it wants and broadens them whenever it wants. The muzzling of the great countries of the permanent membership for some regional deals helps it to do so or the craving after playing the role of domestic opposition in which Sarkozy, president of France, proceeds blindly, besides we can in no way forget the Arab responsibility about what happens to an Arab brother nation which pays gross price for the a foreign cupidity and a stupid internal polices. Many (brothers) became vindicators or executers of the decisions of (the highest leader, i. e. bush) in order to keep their chairs pretending to have forgotten the proverb which says: 'I was eaten when the black ox was".


If Syria wants a political comprehensive fair resolution in Iraq, still refusing to surrender from the political or security aspect, such as extradition of the wanted persons for financial gains, and still deals pragmatically with the issue, we indeed have real fears regarding the enhancement of the security role in the political life due to the human eviction. Actually the security systems fear million and half persons who have tendency towards violence due to many reasons and fear that the conflict might be moved to Iraqi people. Therefore there are some people who justify keeping them under the supremacy for the sake of collective security for them and for the Syrian society. We heard this speech from some officials in Jordon; indeed securing security usually is the thing that inspires fears under whose name great deal of vices are committed by the holder of power especially nothing is constant in policy save interests.


The most important requests should be directed to the Iraqi authorities before others in order to undertake the responsibility of paying due salaries and securing the rights of Iraqi citizens in accordance with the Iraqi law that there 90% employees from the refugees. In addition, the previous laws of Iraq should be reactivated such as the retirement law of the social insurance for sustaining the continent families; instead of preventing the social aids, it is imperative to finance the healthy and educational constitutions which are in dire need for aid and exclusively in this time. The resolution begins from stopping the wide military invasions which result in great evictions and punishing every participant in the compulsory eviction inside or outside the country. Withdrawal of occupation from Iraq and stopping its hellish plans wholly which aim at destroying the infrastructure is the best answer for the problem through resolving its reasons not its outcomes only. Also it is necessary to determine distinguished neighboring relations based on exchanged respect, because the absence of Iraqi powerful country gives not the right to Iranian neighbor for example to interfere in the Iraqi-Iraqi conflicts, otherwise Iran will pay the price, sooner or later, though opening the file of its racial nationalistic structure and paving the way to anyone who wants to interfere to do so. In addition, we have not to forget that the change of executive should be done without delay, due to the fact that the international law casts the responsibility on the executives and the individuals whether they are the basic perpetrators, conspiracies, or partners in committing the crimes or instigating them. All such criminals should be punished according the international law and the human conscience for the crimes they committed in the right of humanity through the outrage of the rights of Iraqi people.


It is imperative to work quickly for wiping off the tears of the Iraqi people and bandaging their physical and psychological wounds through undertaking their responsibilities and relieving their difficulties. They Syrian authorities are also asked to facilitate the process of entering and housing Iraqi refugees and the temporary situation would turn into permanent one by the time. During such difficult time, it is necessary to find solutions to help the Iraqi people to survive till finding a resolve. Could we imagine, for example, that a doctor has lived since quarter of century without a place for residence only through a paper called "ID card" issued by the office of Iraqi national authority? When the contribution in the doctors' syndicate became fifty thousands after it was six thousands lira only, then how could we facilitate to Syria to utilize this coming energy in an honorable way? Especially after the Iraqi hospitals became void of their qualified and professional doctors and in order not to forget the career which is in continuous progress. Like Jordan, for example, which assimilated the professional Iraqi doctors in order to develop education and utilize these energies. How could we help and safeguard this human wealth by not leaving them to return home which means death for them especially if we know that there are eight thousands jobless doctors in Syria and few of them work secretly without the knowledge of the country? Is it not more beneficial for Syria in such bad psychological state of those people because of the bad conditions of their homeland, the painful feeling of losing it, and the feeling of guilt for leaving relatives and family, to make such people to avoid humiliation and things which feed the hidden aggression in every human self? No doubt, there is much facilitation that should be studied rapidly for the goodness of all.


The Iraqi people themselves can find suitable solutions for their own problems provided that they have the freedom of moving and the security authorities relieve them from the pressures which count their breaths all. Indeed, there are many high intellectual and education energies, whether in Syria or the country of migration, which can undertake the responsibility of their fellow citizens if they were provided the suitable reasons and helping factors in order to provide safeguarding and security for all refugees without exception. For example, they could phone some artistes in order to devote the quarter of their works for the emigrants, or to call for making displays or parties and use their returns in establishing hospitals or schools; indeed the preparation of a clinic, without building, costs $100000 and the preparation of a hospital costs three or four doubles of this amount because of the existence of ambulance and the surgery room.


Certainly this will relieve the burdens of the country; especially the responsibility of the public affairs is not only of the political authorities, but also of the individuals. Moreover, the civil national society should assume its role which can naturally call aids of the international civil society without being accused of subordination, collusion, or the like from the accusation which died out since a long time in the global world.


Actually there were some initiatives to form associations and communities by Iraqi people but this was not accepted because of the fear of the Syrian regime; even if such blocks were professional ones like lawyers or journalists. At the time in which the Syrian regime is overwhelmed by the conspiracy theory regarding the associations of civil society, seven or eight associations have introduced their papers for the authorities aiming at proving aids for the refugees. However, such associations have not got the permission, according to our knowledge, to start work till the current time and the aids are still kept with the Syrian Red Crescent or with the churches. Some Iraqi sides believe that the European Union, especially the European parliamentary, should exert some pressure to allow to the human organizations to work in order to relieve the suffering of Iraqi people.


If there are some doubts about the sources of financing, the Syrian authorities can ask the associations to register the amount of the in kind aids they receive like what was done by Kaftaro complex in order not to be accused of money laundry or supporting terrorism. These doubts are enhanced by the pressures of the United States which accused Syria of money laundry through a charitable association. On the other hand, the United States will continue its pressures on Syria in order not to leave the dimensions of atrocities caused by occupation in Iraq to be disclosed. (The American Forces broke the headquarters of Muslim Scholars Organization in Iraq into, confiscated their items, and accused it of terrorism because it received aids from Red Crescent Association of Emirate; the aids were in kind aids in the form of canned foods and succor materials including a tent, a blanket, and a gas flask; indeed dozens of charitable associations in Iraq were attack in the name of war against terrorism).


As long as the Syrian authorities continue in refusing the requests of charitable associations to work among the Iraqi refugees in Syria, it would be so difficult to discover the dimensions of the crisis and finding the suitable solutions for them, nevertheless some Iraqi tries hard to reach, through the personal and individual relations, the neediest people for help and aid.


With regard to us, our mission was not clashed with the kind of authorities which are not concerned that whether Arab or international sides undertake the issue of refugees; on the contrary, this will facilitate our mission and harden it for our opponents. The legal official sides that responsible for this file refused to meet us before knowing what we will say and do; both the national leadership and the Syrian Red Crescent,  under the pretext that we censured Syria in another works of the Arab Committee for human rights with regard to the human rights file.


Some activists, in respect of engaging of the Syrian Authorities with the "home organizations" as the government called it, said: "The Syrian authorities call for encouraging the "developmental activities" and issue the statements regarding the "volunteer work", its importance and the necessity to encourage it. However, reality is something else. To proof this, we say: during the late months the authorities issued some decisions regarding the refusal of giving the licenses for many charitable associations for "social reasons" mentioned not in the refusal decision; whether for "no need for your services", "there are no ingredients for success", or "the association has the same goals of the world feminine union" and so on from the groundless pretexts".


According to our reporters, number of the Iraqi characters living in Syria suggested for Iraqi sides which are public-spirited people and concerned about the volunteering work among the refugees to form an official delegation (or delegations) from European parliamentary characters who are resistant to war or from sympathetic well known characters to visit Damascus for encouraging the government to turn aside from its decision which will result in gross human catastrophe for more than one million Iraqi; especially because the Syrian government searches for international sympathy regarding its positive stance with the Iraqi refugees during the last years. It is well known that the decision of grant in aid granted Jordon $30 million to care about the Iraqi students, on the other hand, Syria was granted nothing though it cared freely about hundred thousands of Iraqi students three years ago; the matter caused big resentment for the Syrian government.




We have asked our reporters to suggest some recommendations regarding the basic needs of citizens and they produced them in the following form:


Firstly- any work in Iraq should start with wiping occupation out and giving the chance to Iraqi people to live and enjoy their wealth, afterwards, anyone of the officials who committed crimes in the right of Iraqi people must be introduced for trial. Certainly any kind of pressure on any faction in Iraq without national comprehensive project, will cause such faction to turn in on itself and will cause the factional partition; the matter which is endorsed by influential sides. Commencing in the national liberation project, the occupation will collapse and things came with it would be null and void. Waiting that to come true, the commissariat of refugees should, through its embassies in the neighboring countries or the through the regular meetings held for Iraqi refugees issues, call upon the Iraqi government to interest in the following issues which fall under its authority and power, such as:


1- Canceling the financial taxes imposed by the Iraqi embassy on refugees, like the taxes paid for extending passports, getting visas from agencies, and the like which are an additional burden on the refugees, besides facilitating the executive procedures.


2- Opening Iraqi clinics controlled by the Iraqi government like what was previously happens or by the commissariat in order to treat the Iraqi refugees and especially those who have chronic illnesses and giving them the needed medicine in the neighboring countries through medicinal cards.


3- Sending the canned foods within the rations to the refugees in the neighboring countries or sending its value in cash which will facilitate the matter for the Iraqi commerce ministry and for the refugees themselves in the same time.


4- Sending the salaries for the retired refugees in the neighboring countries because it is so difficult for them to go monthly to receive them from Iraq, especially most of them are old and sick. The government may assign a national bank in the neighboring countries to distribute such salaries in return for small commission paid by the retired people.


5- It is necessary for the Iraqi government to help the refugees in earning a living through granting them financial aids, loans, or opening small projects that help them in earning a living for them and their families in eviction; the refugees should have a share in the governmental budget that paid in such fields.


6- It necessary to establish central coffers for the widows and orphans in order to compensate them though the country lest their affairs wholly turn for the charitable associations; taking into consideration that the occupation caused one million widows and five millions orphans besides one million victims.


7- It is necessary to establish educational universities for Iraqi sons and to educate them at the expenses of country provided that the Iraqi professors who are jobless in the eviction work therein.


8- It is also necessary to begin in establishing hospitals under the command of the Iraq and Syrian governments to serve Iraqi people and provide jobs for the jobless doctors in the eviction.


9- Asking the countries participated in occupation forces to pay compensations and indemnities for the emigrant citizens as they are responsible, legally and morally, for the situation to which Iraqi people ended.


Secondly- opening a conversation with the praiseworthy neighboring countries which lodge the Iraqi refugees regarding providing possible facilitations to them, such as:


1- Facilitating the procedures of entering into the country to Iraqi people and extending the periods of settlement; indeed it is so difficult for old people, kids, and women to do such things every short time.


2- Giving the settlement for one school year to the refugees who have sons in the Syrian school. Indeed such decision is existed but it is operative in the current time for unknown reasons; besides giving the annual settlement for people who gained the title refugee from the commissariat of refugees.


3- Opening the work fields for the refugees in order to help them in earning a living, because most of them have academic experience and certificates even temporarily till the situation become better and the refugees return back to Iraq. Unfortunately, the Syrian law does not allow refugees to work, to make small projects, or to own real estate or cars.


4- Allowing the well-known human organizations all over the Arab and western worlds to work directly to assure the lowest level of good health for refugees.



Thirdly- recommendations for the commissariat work: it may be more beneficial to revise the names of refugees' alphabetically and putting the orders in the headquarters of the commissariat in order to reduce their suffering caused by the long distance between the place of registration of the commissariat from the capital and to reduce the burdens that undertaken by the revisers because of much revising. It is possible to open a division in the middle of capital at the headquarters of the commissariat to provide consultation and advice for the refugees instead of going to the office or registration in Doma, besides putting the web site of the commissariat on the net which facilitate answering the inquiries of Iraqi people and others.


Fourthly: Hopefully, we request the Arab League to care about establishing an office for managing the emergency funds to help Iraqi people.




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